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Answer the following questions to check your skill.
Q.1-10) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it.
Climate change occurs when there is a build-up of carbon in the atmosphere. However, if carbon is collected (or sequestered) in the soil and used to increase productivity, the results are three-fold - a reduction in atmospheric carbon levels, increased crop yields, and more income for farmers. Ironic as it may sound, in dryland agriculture the availability of organic carbon in the soil is the key to increasing productivity. Hence, 'look down at the soil to make your agricultural productivity look up' is the new motto of agricultural scientists, especially those working with natural resource management and watershed development. This, however, calls for massive investment by developed and developing countries to support dryland agricultural research and corresponding support systems. Although there is much attention and support being given to irrigated agriculture, drylands occupy 80 per cent of agricultural land and generate 58 per cent of the world's staple foods. In fact, most of the food for the poor in the developing countries is produced in dryland and rainfed areas.
A close look at the rainfed regions shows a grim picture of water scarcity, fragile environments, drought, and land degradation caused by low rainwater use efficiency, high population pressure, poverty, poor infrastructure, and inappropriate policies. Drought and land degradation are interlinked in a cause-and-effect relationship, which in turn causes poverty. This unholy nexus among drought, poverty, and land degradation must be broken if we have to meet the Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of food-insecure poor. Added to this is the threat of climate change. It is anticipated that climate change will lead to more rainfall variability and increased frequency of extreme events, resulting in more and longer dry spells due to global warming.
Innovative strategies are required to help the dryland farmer overcome these difficulties. The world's top research centre for dryland agriculture, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi - Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is working on increasing the organic carbon level in the soil through increased sequestration (accumulation from the environment).
Soil organic carbon is the source of energy to fuel biological activities in the soil, which in turn control the availability of nutrients for plant growth as well as soil water availability - a critical yield component in tropical drylands. Increased carbon sequestration can not only increase nutrient supply and turnover capacity of the soil but result in substantial changes in the physical and biological properties of the soil, which increase water holding capacity and the ability to cope with longer dry spells during crop growth. ICRISAT's research has shown that legumes in general and pigeon pea in particular have the ability to sequester more carbon in tropical soils. Through the adoption of improved water, soil and crop management options, carbon sequestration in legume-based systems can be improved further. If this is adopted within an integrated community watershed, the productivity of rainfed agriculture can be doubled, providing increased incomes to farmers.
1. One of the main reasons for climate change, according to the passage, is
the increase in the production of carbon.
the non-availability of organic carbon in the soil.
the increased accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere.
the increased accumulation of carbon in the soil.
2. Agricultural productivity in dry lands can be increased if
massive investments are made by the developed countries.
the availability of organic carbon in the soil is increased.
the scientists start working on natural resource management.
watershed development projects are given more financial support by the government.
3. The motto "look down at the soil to make your agricultural productivity look up", means in order to increase agricultural productivity
1 and 2
2 and 3
1 and 3
1 and 3
4. Which of the following is NOT TRUE, according to the passage?
Nearly 58 per cent of the world's staple food is produced from drylands.
An increased carbon level in soil can result in an increase in crop yields.
Scientists working on natural resource management and watershed development pay more attention to the soil and its carbon levels.
The developing and the developed countries give massive financial support to dry land agricultural research.
5. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the dreadful environmental conditions existing in all rainfedareas?
Low rainwater use efficiency.
High population pressure.
Lack of support for agricultural research.
6. The Millennium Development Goal stated in the passage aims at
breaking the network among poverty, drought and land degradation.
halving the number of food-insecure poor.
calling for massive investments by developed countries to support dry land agricultural research.
increasing agricultural productivity two-fold to meet the growing population.
7. Scientists forewarn that the change in climate will result in
1 and 2
2 and 3
1 and 3
8. The availability of organic carbon in the soil
gives energy to the soil.
helps in the soil's biological activities.
provides nutrients for plant growth.
All the above
9. According to the study made by the scientists at the ICRISAT, the productivity of the rainfed agricultural land can be doubled if
carbon sequestration is adopted to increase the carbon levels in the soil.
an integrated watershed and carbon sequestration programme is adopted by the farmers.
improved water, soil and crop management options are adopted.
legumes and pigeon peas are cultivated by dryland farmers.
10. Select the word that is most SIMILAR in meaning to the given word as used in the passage.
Q.11-15) An idiom and four possible meanings are given. Identify the meaning from the given choices.
11. Throw down the gauntlet
12. To eat humble pie
to give a feast
to work hard
to stay in jail
13. To play fast and loose
to sing aloud
to play dishonestly
to show kindness
to act unreliably
14. Pay a score
pay back debts
avenge an injury
15. In the nick of time
at the exact time
long before time
for want of time
Q.16-17) Fill in the blanks with suitable articles.
16. Switzerland is considered to be ______ paradise on the earth.
Both A and B
17. Besides being a scholar, he is also ______ eminent orator.
Q.18-23) Fill in the blanks in the given sentences so as to make sense.
18. We ______ with the photograph trying to hang it, till it fell to the floor and the frame broke.
19. The young boy was lying in the middle of the road, and ______ in pain but nobody picked him up.
20. He ______ his studies.
21. The people of South Asia _____ behind in economic development because of tensions and conflicts.
has been left
had been left
will be left
22. In the face of public censure, the government was compelled to take a more ______ stand.
23. In a/an ______ blue dress which shimmered when she moved, she looked gorgeous.
S.24-25) Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions.
24. There is no tax _____ printed books.
25. We went to London _____ Christmas day.
Q.26-30) A foreign expression and four English phrases are given in each of the following questions. Identify the meaning of the foreign expression from the given choices.
26. SINE DIE
without assigning any date
27. AD HOC
28. IN MEMORIAM
in the hospital
in memory of
in the mother's womb
30. AD INFINITUM
in limited manner
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